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THE CAUSES:

In 1954, Charles (King Mutara Rudahigwa) "shared out the land between the Hutu and the Tutsi. The Tutsi were unhappy with this, which led to Charles' assassination in 1959. Political instability and tribal conflict grew despite the efforts of his son, King Kigeri V." (History of Rwanda)
"The moderate King Kigari V, who had ruled for nearly three decades, died in 1969, and more ethnocentric Tutsi seized power. This contributed to a series of rebellions by Hutu demanding equal rights". (Uzoigwe 390)
"The Tutsis, enraged by their gradual loss of power, made an attempt on the life of Mouvement Democratique Republicain (MDR) leader Gregoire Kayibanda". The MDR was "the largest Hutu political party. Genocide ensued".
A second "wave of ethnic tensions were unleashed in 1990. One of the main causes was a slumping economy and food shortages. Throughout the year, the country was subject to bad weather and lessening cofffee prices . . .
"Another source of mounting tensions in 1990, were the [complaints] of . . . those Tutsis who had been exiled over thirty years." They were coming together and forming the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF). "The Hutus in Rwanda" didn't listen to them. They "considered these Tutsis an evil aristocracy which had rightly been exiled . . . The exiled Tutsis . . . demanded recognition of their rights as Rwandans; including, naturally, the right to return there. These Tutsis began to pressure the Rwandan government, and eventually forced [them] to make concessions."
Habyarimana, the Rwandan president at the time, "found himself forced to . . . work on the formation of a 'National Political Charter' which would help reconcile the Hutus and Tutsis." But "the situation went bad. The RPF was simply unwilling to wait any longer for teh Rwandan government to come through on its promises. On October 1, 1990, the RPF banded together and invaded Rwanda from their base in neighboring Uganda. The rebel force, composed primarily of ethnic Tutsis, blamed the government for failing to democratize and resolve the problems of some 500,000 Tutsi refugees living in [refugee camps] around the world . . .
Habyarimana himself reacted by immediately instituting genocidal pogroms, which would be directed against all Tutsis and against any Hutus seen as in league with Tutsi interests. Habyarimana justified these acts by proclaiming it was the intent of the Tutsis to restore a kind of Tutsi feudal system and to thus enslave the Hutu race." (History of Rwanda)

Rwanda

The Genocide

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The Causes, the Genocide, and the Effects

THE GENOCIDE:

"On April 6, 1994, the airplane carrying President Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the President of Burundi, was shot down as it prepared to land at Kigali. [The two] presidents were killed when the plane crashed. [Almost as if] the shooting down was a signal, military and militia groups began rounding up and killing all Tutsis they could capture as well as political moderates". The militaries and militias didn't care what the ethnic backgrounds of the political moderates were. "Large numbers of opposition politicians were also murdered. Many nations evacuated all their nationals from Kigali and closed their embasies as violence escalated . . .
"The killing swiftly spread from Kigali [across] the country; between April 6 and the beginning of July, a genocide of unprecedented swiftness officially left 937,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus dead at the hands of organized bands of militia . . . Ordinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbors. The president's MRND Party was implicated in organizing many aspects of the genocide . . .
"The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the genocide in July 1994". (History of Rwanda)

THE EFFECTS:

"An estimated 20,000 to 100,000 Tutsis [were] killed by Hutus . . .
"The killing swiftly spread from Kigali [across] the country; between April 6 and the beginning of July, a genocide of unprecedented swiftness officially left 937,000 Ttsis and moderate Hutus dead at the hands of organized bands of militia . . .
"The United Nations led an intervention in 1960 due to the genocide. This intervention aided in the independence of Rwanda.
"Ultimately, a new wave of ethnic tensions were unleashed in 1990." (History of Rwanda)

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Its Colonial Past and Independent Present