In 1954, Charles (King Mutara Rudahigwa) "shared
out the land between the Hutu and the Tutsi. The Tutsi were unhappy with this, which led to Charles' assassination in 1959.
Political instability and tribal conflict grew despite the efforts of his son, King Kigeri V." (History of Rwanda)
moderate King Kigari V, who had ruled for nearly three decades, died in 1969, and more ethnocentric Tutsi seized power. This
contributed to a series of rebellions by Hutu demanding equal rights". (Uzoigwe 390)
"The Tutsis, enraged by their
gradual loss of power, made an attempt on the life of Mouvement Democratique Republicain (MDR) leader Gregoire Kayibanda".
The MDR was "the largest Hutu political party. Genocide ensued".
A second "wave of ethnic tensions were unleashed
in 1990. One of the main causes was a slumping economy and food shortages. Throughout the year, the country was subject to
bad weather and lessening cofffee prices . . .
"Another source of mounting tensions in 1990, were the [complaints]
of . . . those Tutsis who had been exiled over thirty years." They were coming together and forming the Rwandese Patriotic
Front (RPF). "The Hutus in Rwanda" didn't listen to them. They "considered these Tutsis an evil aristocracy which had rightly
been exiled . . . The exiled Tutsis . . . demanded recognition of their rights as Rwandans; including, naturally, the right
to return there. These Tutsis began to pressure the Rwandan government, and eventually forced [them] to make concessions."
the Rwandan president at the time, "found himself forced to . . . work on the formation of a 'National Political Charter'
which would help reconcile the Hutus and Tutsis." But "the situation went bad. The RPF was simply unwilling to wait any longer
for teh Rwandan government to come through on its promises. On October 1, 1990, the RPF banded together and invaded Rwanda
from their base in neighboring Uganda. The rebel force, composed primarily of ethnic Tutsis, blamed the government for failing
to democratize and resolve the problems of some 500,000 Tutsi refugees living in [refugee camps] around the world . . .
himself reacted by immediately instituting genocidal pogroms, which would be directed against all Tutsis and against any Hutus
seen as in league with Tutsi interests. Habyarimana justified these acts by proclaiming it was the intent of the Tutsis to
restore a kind of Tutsi feudal system and to thus enslave the Hutu race." (History of Rwanda)